• "The Report of the Meeting between al-Rida 'Ali b. Musa (peace be upon them both),
    and the religious leaders and representatives of theological opinion,
    such as the Patriarch, the Exilarch, the Leaders of the Sabaeans, and the Great Hirbadh;
    and what 'Imran the Sabaean said about belief in God's unity
    before al-Ma'mun".
    in
    Two muslim-christian debates from the early shi'ite tradition
    (Xth century)
    par David Thomas
    Journal of Semitic Studies XXXIII/1 Spring1988

    (extrait concernant le débat avec les chrétiens)
    1. Isnad
    2. Présentation des protagonistes
    3. Al-Rida le chiite se prépare au débat dans le but de fermer la bouche à ses opposants, et de montrer à Al-Mamun que le vrai islam est chiite
    4. Al-Mamun propose au patriarche de débattre avec Al-Rida
    5. Se baser sur l'Evangile et non sur le coran
    6. Attestation du caractère prophétiqe de Mahomet par des témoins acceptables par les chrétiens
    7. Témoignage de Jean (de Dailam !) rapportant que Jésus a annoncé la "religion de Mahomet l'arabe"
    8. Le patriarche admet cette preuve
    9. Les apôtres et évangélistes
    10. Jésus priait peu et jeûnait peu
    11. Les miracles de Jésus et les miracles des prophètes Elisée et Ezéchiel
    12. Miracles au nom de Mahomet
    13. Les chrétiens devraient considérer Elisée et Ezéchiel comme Seiogneur à cause de leurs miracles
    14. La résurrection des morts par Ezéchiel (dont Abraham et Moïse)
    15. Mahomet annoncé dans les Livres comme celui qui chevauche un chameau
    16. L'annonce du Paraclet dans l'Evangile
    17. Le "premier évangile" perdu et réécrit par Luc, Marc, Jean et Matthieu
    18. Sur la nature du Christ
    19. Confusion du patriarche


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  • The refutation of those who say that God is the third of three,
    and that there is only one God
    in
    Two muslim-christian debates from the early shi'ite tradition
    (Xth century)
    par David Thomas
    Journal of Semitic Studies XXXIII/1 Spring1988


    "débat" entre Hisham b. al-Hakam et le "patriarche chrétien Bariha : Table des matières

    1. Présentation du "patriarche" Bariha
    2. Les doutes de Bariha et sa "recherche de la vérité" auprès des sunnites
    3. Rencontre de Bariha et du chiite Isham
    4. La nature du Christ
    5. Différences entre le Père et le Fils, et confusion des deux
    6. Bariha demande à rencontrer le maître de Isham
    7. Bariha et les Ecritures
    8. Abu Abdallah le chiite récite l'Evangile "comme le faisait le Christ"
    9. Conversion de Bariha à l'islam



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  • Un pamphlet musulman anonyme,
    d'époque abbaside (fin du IX° siècle),
    contre les chrétiens
    publié par D. Sourdel
    dans la "Revue des Etudes Islamiques", tome 36,
    1966


    Table des matières
    Pamphlet
    Table
    0. (Le début du texte est manquant)
    1. Comment peut-on prétendre qu'un homme est Dieu ?
    2. Le Christ "pendu au bois" est maudit d'après Moïse
    3.Qui régnait dans le Ciel lorsque jésus était en Marie, ou enfant ?
    4. Jésus n'a pas de père humain ? Adam non plus.
    5. Les miracles de Jésus ne sont pas supérieurs à ceux de Moïse ou d'Ezéchiel
    6.Les serviteurs de Dieu avant la venue de Jésus ne peuvent avoir été soumis au pouvoir d'Iblis dans le séjour des morts.
    7. Si Jésus est venu pour détruire l'action de satan, pourquoi y-t-il tant de peuple à ne pas être chrétiens ?
    8.Pourquoi les chrétiens ne se prosternent-ils pas les jours de fête ?
    9. Le reliques transforment les églises en cimetières.
    10. Les croix et les icônes sont des idoles
    11. Les saints et théologiens furent animés par satan
    12. Les chrétiens ne mettent pas en pratique les commandements du Christ
    13. Sur le paradis "charnel"
    14. Sur la prière en direction de la Mecque
    15. La polygamie
    16. Mahomet n'a pas imité Bahira
    17. Mahomet a été envoyé vers un peuple qui était "sans Livre"
    18. Mahomet leur enseigna le licite et l'illicite
    19. Dieu a commandé de combattre les "associateurs"
    20. Dieu a fait que la faible troupe des musulmans vainquent l'armée de Byzance


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  • Le "Pacte d'Omar", et le statut de Dhimmistraduction du "Pacte d'Omar"

     

    Les fêtes des chrétiens melchites présentées par Abou Rîḥân AL-BIROUNI : traduction de Griveau ou format pdf, sur Archive)

    Un pamphlet musulman anonyme, d'époque abbaside (fin du IX° siècle), contre les chrétiens publié dans la "Revue des Etudes Islamiques", tome 36, 1966
    Table des matières

     

    Contre ceux qui disent que Dieu est un "troisième de Trois" dans Two muslim-christian debates from the early shi'ite tradition, (Xth century), par David Thomas ; Journal of Semitic Studies XXXIII/1 Spring1988
    Table des matières

     

     Débat d'Al-Rida devant Al-Mamun dans Two muslim-christian debates from the early shi'ite tradition, (Xth century), par David Thomas ; Journal of Semitic Studies XXXIII/1 Spring1988
    Table des matières

    Lettre de Omar II, 8e calife : voir Léon l'Isaurien (726) Correspondance entre Omar II, 8e calife Omeyyade et Léon III l'Isaurien, empereur de Constantinople, sur la foi des chrétiens (Introduction, traduction et table des matières)

     

    Lettre de Abdallah ben-Ismaïl Al-Hashimi : voir Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi (vers 820) Correspondance avec Al-Hashimi (Introduction et table des matières)

     


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  • L'adaptation anonyme du
    "Dialogue d'un musulman et d'un chrétien de st Jean Damascène"
    attribuée à tort à Théodore Abu Qurrah

    Table des matières


    Qui est l'auteur du bien et du mal ?
    Sur les croyants morts avant la venue du Christ
    Tout acte est-il la volonté de Dieu ?
    Les paroles du Seigneur sont-elles créées ou incréées ?
    Marie est-elle morte ou vivante ?
    La création est-elle continue achevée.
    Qui est le plus grand : Jésus ou Jean Baptiste ?


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  • Le dialogue du moine Georges
    (anba Jirji),
    en présence du prince Al-Moshammar,
    fils de Saladin.
    Mujādalat al-anbā Jirjī l-rāhib

    Table des matières
    Préambule
    Le mode de vie des moines et ses raisons
    Arrivée des lettrés musulmans
    Les caractéristiques d'un envoyé de Dieu
    L'accusation d'avoir falsifié l'Evangile
    Histoire de Mahomet
    La croyance des chrétiens
    Intervention d'Abou al-Fadl
    L'incarnation du Christ
    Fin de la première journée
    [Deuxième jour]
    Le Christ, Dieu et homme
    Mathal du prisonnier gracié.
    Actions humaines et divines du Christ
    Mathal du serviteur rebelle et du roi incognito
    La vénération de la Croix
    Mathal du maître se substituant à son serviteur
    Les quatre religions
    La religion des Sabéens
    La religion des Juifs
    Les chrétiens
    Islam
    Mathal du roi, du prince et du médecin
    Ordalies et tour de passe-passe
    Ablutions rituelles, circoncision et baptême
    Humilité ou splendeur ?
    Les merveilles du Hadj
    Séparation et départ


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  • Dialogue de Théodore Abu Qurrah avec le calife Al-Mamun
    Thèmes abordés et Table des matières

    The caliph and the bishop

    Wafik NASRY

    2008


    Indeed, many are the issues discussed and/or implied during al—
    Mugfidalah. They include the following:

    1. Inter-religious dialogue
    2. Freedom of speech
    3. Circumcision
    4. The creation of human beings in the image and the likeness of God
    5. The covenant with Abraham
    6. The dignity of the human being
    7. The goodness of creation
    8. The New Covenant
    9. idolatry
    10. The identity of Jesus
    11. Jesus” freedom in giving up His life on the cross
    12. The reasons for Christian silence
    13. The consequence of Christian silence
    14. The human duty to search for and follow the truth once it is found
    15. The interpretation of the Qur ’dn
    16. Women in Islam
    17. Homosexuality
    18. The images of paradise in Christianity and in Islam
    19. The reasons Muslims antagonize the Christians
    20. Definitions and meanings: terms common to Christians and Muslims
    21. Gihad
    22. Tahrif
    23 Takfir
    24. The Quran’s View of the Christians
    25. The rebellion of Satan
    26. Marriage
    27. Divorce
    28. The veneration of the Cross
    29. Who are the mzrlsrilnin according to the Qur’dn?
    30. Who is a prophet, in Christianity and in Islam?
    31. Is Muhammad a prophet?
    32. The difference between inspired and munzal
    33. The concept ot‘missionary activity in Christianity and in Islam
    34. The importance of learning Arabic for a study of the Qur ’dn
    35. God’s omniscience
    36. The immutability of God
    37. God’s Transcendence
    38. The impassability of God
    39. The ascension of Mary
    40. Free will

    Dialogue de Théodore Abu Qurrah avec le calife Al-Mamun

     Abu Qurrah and al-Ma’mun : Table of content


     [The scribe’s introduction and preparation of the debate] ...... .............. 173
        [1. Al-Ma’mun’s love for Abu Qurrah and the opposition of Qurays’s elite] ...... 173
         [2. The purpose of the debate] ................................................................................ 173
         [3. Al-Ma’mun’s invitation to Abu Qurrah and his acceptance of the debate] ...... 174
     [I. The law of circumcision and the Old Covenant] ........................................... 175
         [1. Is the foreskin impurelj .......................................................................... 175
         [2. God does not create something Impure] ................................................. 175
         [3. The covenant with Abraham] ................................................................. 176
     [II. Christ made a new covenant with the nations] .............................................. 178
     [A. The New Covenant] ................................................................................. 178
         [1 On the Laws of Moses and the Laws of the Lord, the Christ] ................. 178
         [2. God’s rejection of the sons of Israel]..
         [3. the Nazarenes belief in Christ] ................................................................. 179
     [B. On the status of Christ before God] ............................................................ 180
         [1. Al-Ma’mun grants Abu Qurrah safety and freedom of speech] ............. 181
         [2. Adam is a creature and can be described, measured, and limited] .......... 182
         [3. Christ, the Word of God and His Spirit] .................
     [C. On the matter of dialogue] .....................
         [1. On the reasons for the silence of the Nazarenes and its consequences] ........ 183
         [2. On how the Qur’an commands to address the Nazarenes] ............................. 184
     [III, The religion of God is faith] .......................................................... 185
     [A. Abu Qurrah denies the Muslims faith and affirms the Nazarenes’] ............ 185
         [1. Abu Qurrah asserts the rightness of the Nazarenes’ faith on the light of al-fatihah]
         [2. It is not rightful for the Muslim to boast his Islam over others] .................... 186
         [3. The religion of God is faith in His Word and Spirit and no more] .. ....... 187
     [B. Abu Qurrah asserts his denial of faith to the Muslims] ..................... 188
         [1. Your prophet and your book have witnessed that God excluded you from the faith]
        [2. Excursive clarification: Heaven and Hell] ................... 189
        3. Reasons for which the Muslims antagonize the Nazarenes] ..................... 190
        [4. On the necessity that the Muslim be content with the saying of his prophet and the witness of his book] ....... 191
     [C. Reaction of the people present: Inability, praise and summons of others to the debate]
         [1. Muhammad’s inability to debate with Abu Qur’rah and al-Mamun's praise] ..... 193
         [2. The summoning of Salam b. Mu‘awiyah al-Hamadarfi and dismissing him] ......194
         [3. The summoning of Sa‘sa‘ah b. llalid] ................................................ 195
     [IV. Christ came into the world perfectly human and perfectly Divine] ..
    [ A. On the humanity of Christ] ............................................................
        [1. On the saying of Christ «I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my  God and your God»]
         [2. On the motive for the Incarnation] ..................
         [3. God did not make doubtful the Divinity of Christ] ......................................
         [4. God is not angry at those who follow His Spirit and Word] .......
         [5. The polytheists according to the Qui"an] ...................................
         [6. It is imperative to believe the Word of God and His Spirit] .....................
     [B. Abu Qur'ah responds to al—Hasimr’s accusation of polytheism] ..........
         [1. God’s freedom in choosing His Word and Spirit Son] ......................
         [2. The Psalter, the Qur’an and the Gospel admit a Son, though al-Hashimi denies it]
         [3. Al-Hasimi admits his inability in the debate and returns to Christ and Adam] ........
     [C. On the death of the Christ and His Divinity] .............................................. 209
     [D. On the Spirit of God residing in the belly of Mary] ........... A ............ 210
         [1. On accusing the angels and the book of lying] ..................... ....211
         [2. The slave’s honor is to believe his master] .................................. ....212
         [3. Al-Ki‘ifi reproaches Abu Qur‘rah and al-Ma’mu‘in defends him] ............ 212
         [4. Al—Dimasqi admits his inability to debate with Abfi Qurrah]
         [5. Al-Ma’mun summons ‘Ali b. al-Walid and Abu al-Hasan b. Lu’ayy al-Farisi] ...214
     [E. The crucifixion, death and resurrection] ........................................... 214
         [1. The Nazarenes do not worship the Cross] ...............
         [2. Affirmation of the crucifixion of Christ] .............................................. 216
         [3. An example of the effect of the resurrection] ................................................ ...216
         [4. On the truth of the crucifixion of the Word of God and His Spirit]. ...217
         [5. A1-Farisi admits his inability in the debate and Abu Qurrah invites him tofollow the Christ] ............ 218
         [6. Abu Qurr'ah enumerates some of what he takes against the behavior of his debater]
     [V. The Incarnation and the unity of the Trinity] ................................................ 222
     [A. Abu Qurrah responds to three objections of a man from the elite of Qurays]
        [1. The Creator is omnipresent and nothing can contain or stain Him] ................ 222
         [2. God is able to send His Word and Spirit wherever He wishes without leaving Him]
         [3. A prologue to the discourse on the unity of the Trinity] ................................. 224
         [4. Defense ofthe unity ofthe ’l‘rinity] ........................................................ 224
         [5. Abu Qurrah answers the objection: if Mary died while pregnant with Christ,who would be the judge'?] ....... 225
     [B. The Word of God and His Spirit is God] .........
         [1. On calling the Word of God and His Spirit God]
         [2. Al-Kufi prefers silence and Abu Qiu'rah opts to continue] .............. ..
         [3. Al-Kuifi asks Abu Qurrah to separate the Trinity and define the belief in Christ]
         [4. On the Oneness of God] 1. .
         [5. On the meaning of the term «The Word of God and His Spirit»] ..
         [6. On the impossibility of separating the Trinity and the credibility of the birth of theWord]
         [7. On the Creator of creation and the unity of the Trinity: One Creator]...
     [C. If Christ is God, how could He have eaten, drunk, and walked in the markets?]
         [1. Abu Qurrah’s faith in the unity of the Trinity] ........
         [2. Abt‘i Qul'rah’s faith in Christ] ............................................................... 234
         [3. Examples of the unity of the Trinity] .......................
         [4. Christ is perfectly Divine and perfectly human] ......
     [D. Abu Qurrah answers al-‘Iraqi, who accuses him of corrupting the Scripture]
         [1. Your book is the one that corrupted] ...................
         [2. Abu Qurrah offers an example of what he considers corruption] ..............
         [3. Abu Qurrah distinguishes between the Muslims and the believers] ..........
         [4. Abu Qurrah distinguishes between Islam and faith] ..................................
         [5. The messenger of Islam distinguished between Islam and faith] .....
         [6. Abu Qurrah enumerates some of what he takes against the behavior of his debater]
         [7. The Word of God is Essence and Truth: An invitation to follow Christ]
     [E. A return to Christ and Adam]. ........................................................... 244
         [1. Abu Qurrah marvels at Abu al-Qasim’s denial of What came regarding the Christ]
         [2. Unlike Adam, Christ did not obey Satan and did not sin, and raised himself and others up from death]
        [3. AI-Ma’mfin agrees with Abu Qurrah: no one is able to raise himself up to life, and Abu Qurrah repeats: Christ raised Himself up]
    [VI, On the motives of the Incarnation] .............................................................. 247
    [A. He vested Himself with a human to speak to the body with the body, out of love for humanity]............... 247
    [B. He vested Himself with a human body to save the human from the bondage of Satan: History of salvation] ............................................ 248
        [1. God loved His creation, so He created them, poured His grace upon them, and required their obedience to Him]
         [2. God created the Angels and placed them in the most honorable of places] ..... 249
        [3. Satan’s desire for equality with God] ................................................ 249
        [4, The Divine reaction to Satan’s arrogance] ......................
        [5. Satan’s attempt to distance humans away from God] .............................. 250
        [6. God began His salvific work, sending tlis prophets, calling people to His worship]
        [7. In the fullness of time, He took a human body and became man so that humans might recognize the Weakness of their enemy and discredit him]
    [VII. On the Divinity of Christ] .................................................................. .. 253
    [A. The Quran witnesses to the Divinity of Christ] ......................................... 253
        [1, The Qur‘an witnesses to Christ’s ability to create, and to raise up the dead, and calls Him the Word of God and His Spirit] ...............................................
        [2. On denying that Christ is God defaming God] ........................................
    [B. On the Divinity of Christ and His crucifixion] .....
        [1. Christ went to the cross freely] .....................................
        [2. Abu Qurrah asks the group to bear witness against their companion]
        [3. An analogous example, clarifying the silliness of the intervention] ............... 256
        [4, Al-Mamun’s praise of Abu Qurrah,
        [5. A practical example, clarifying the folly of the intervention] ............... 257
        [6. al-Hasimi is unable to debate with Abu Qurrah]..................................... 259
    [C Different interventions about the Divinity of Christ] .................................. 259
        [1, Abu Qui’r‘ah refutes the intervention that Christ is a god who killed his mother]
        [2. On the Jews and the Cross] ................................................. 260
        [3. On the Christian worship of a god the Jews crucified and killed, and who died and was buried] ......... 261
        [4. Abu Qurrah defines, once again, his faith in the Divinity of Christ and enumerates some of the effects of His death] . .263
        [5. On the prayer of Christ] ........................................... “.263
    [D. On the Nazarenes’ reverence one to another] ............................................. 264
    [VIII. Al-Ma’mun praises Aha Qurrah and others invite him to Islam] .............. 265
    [A. Al-Ma’mun’s scribe invites Abu Quirah to Islam because the religion of the Nazarenes is a wretched religion] ............. 265
    [B. On God allowing tribulations and that the Byzantine Christian kings are not wretched] ....... 265
        [1. God allows tribulations for the healing ofhumans] ................................... 265
        [2. God allows tribulations for the pluning of humans] ................................... 266
        [3. The Byzantine Christian kings are not wretched] ................................... 266
    [C. The paradise in Islam and Christianity] ...........
        [1. Al—Ma’mun’s minister invites Abu Qurrah to Islam, promising him the goods of this world and the goods of paradise] ............... ....266
        [2. Abu Qun‘ah prefers the paradise promised by Jesus, the Christ] ........ ...267
    [IX. The conclusion of the debate: No one has seen God] .................................. 269
    [A. Silence of the Muslim elite lamentation of al-Mamun and the reward to Abu Qurrah]
    [B. Both sides agree that no one has seen God] .. 269
    [C. Thanksgiving to God] ....................................................................... 270

     


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  • Lettre sur l'entretien que Mar Jean, patriarche jacobite,
    eut avec l'émir Amr Ibn al-As
    le 9 mai 639
    Table des matières


    1. Préambule
    2. Pourquoi y a-t-il des divisions entre les chrétiens ?
    3. Le Christ est-il Dieu ?
    4. Qui régnait au Ciel quand Marie était enceinte ?
    5. Pourquoi Abraham et Moïse n'ont-ils pas parlé de la Trinité ?
    6. Références à l'Ecriture
    7. Sur les lois "civiles" des chrétiens
    8-9. Jacobites et chalcédoniens
    10. Conclusion


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  • Le Dialogue de Timothée I avec le calife Al-Mahdi
    Table des matières d'après
    HACKENBURG, Clint
    "An Arabic-to-English Translation of the Religious Debate
    between the Nestorian Patriarch Timothy I
    and the ‘Abbāsid Caliph al-Mahdī", 2009

    Contents of the Debate
    Numbers of the Paragraphs
    Introduction
    Introduction ........................................................................................................ 1-2


    The First Section: Christ is the Word of God Incarnated for Our Salvation
    Introduction ........................................................................................................ 3-6
    1 – Christ, the Son of God ............................................................................... 7-11
    2 - Christ, Son of Mary .................................................................................. 12-20
    a) How had Mary remained a virgin after the birth? ...................................... 14-16
    b) Proof of the possibility of that from the Book and from nature ................... 17-20
    3 - Christ is One in Two Natures .................................................................. 21-29
    a) Is Christ eternal or temporal? ..................................................................... 23-24
    b) Is Christ created or uncreated? ................................................................... 25-27
    c) Is Christ one or two? ................................................................................... 28-29
    4 - Christ is the Son of God, Not His Slave .................................................. 30-34
    a) The first objection and its response ............................................................. 30-31
    b) The second objection and its response ........................................................ 32-34
    Conclusion: Christ was born of the Holy Spirit .......................................... 35-37


    The Second Section: The Holy Trinity
    Introduction .................................................................................................... 38-39
    1 - Three Hypostases, and Not Three Gods ................................................. 40-58
    Introduction...................................................................................................... 40-41
    a) Proof in the creations .................................................................................. 42-46
    b) Proof from the Book .................................................................................... 47-56
    Summary .......................................................................................................... 57-58
    2 - Three Distinguished Hypostases without Separation ............................ 59-68
    36
    Introduction............................................................................................................59
    a) A philosophical explanation of the idea ...................................................... 60-62
    b) An explanation of the idea through parallels from nature .......................... 63-67
    Conclusion .............................................................................................................68
    3 - Are the Three Hypostases, Therefore, Incarnated? .............................. 69-71
    a) The first response: an example of the written word ..........................................70
    b) The second response: an example of the pronounced word ..............................71


    The Third Section: Christ, Our Leader and Our Guide
    Introduction .................................................................................................... 72-73
    1 - Why are You Not Circumcised Like Your Guide? ............................... 74-83
    a) Christ abolished circumcision through his baptism .................................... 74-78
    b) Because circumcision is a sign for his baptism ........................................... 79-81
    c) The abolition of circumcision is not contrary to the law ............................. 82-83
    2 - Why Do You Not Pray toward Jerusalem Like Your Guide? .............. 84-87
    3 - How is Christ Your God, While He Prays and Worships? ................... 88-91


    The Fourth Section: Why Do You Not Accept the Testimony of the Scriptures Regarding Muhammad?
    Introduction ..........................................................................................................92
    1 - We Accept Christ………. .................................................. …………….93-103
    a) Testimonies about his birth and about his miracles .................................... 94-96
    b) Testimonies of his passion, his resurrection, and his second coming ....... 97-100
    Summary ..............................................................................................................101
    2 - Is Not the Paraclete a Testimony to Muhammad? ............................ 102-121
    a) Who is the Paraclete? .............................................................................. 104-110
    b) Muhammad is not the Paraclete .............................................................. 111-120
    Conclusion: There is no mention of Muhammad in the Gospel...........................121
    3 – Did You Not Falsify Your Books? ...................................................... 122-133
    a) The accusations: You falsified the books ........................................................124
    b) The first objection ............................................................................................125
    37
    c) The second objection ............................................................................... 126-128
    Conclusion ...........................................................................................................129
    4 - Supplementary: The Qur’ān was not confirmed by signs ................ 130-133
    5 - Isaiah Did Not Prophesy about Muhammad ..................................... 134-157
    Introduction: He prophesied about Darius and Cyrus ................................ 134-137
    a) The first indication: From the context of the Word ................................. 138-140
    b) The second indication: From geography................................................. 141-143
    c) The third indication: From the Book of Daniel ....................................... 144-145
    d) The fourth indication: From history ........................................................ 146-149
    e) The fifth indication: From the Holy Scriptures ....................................... 150-153
    The Conclusion: Jesus is the seal of the prophets ....................................... 154-157


    The Fifth Section: What Do You Say about Muhammad?
    Introduction ........................................................................................................158
    1 - Muhammad Followed in the Path of the Prophets ............................ 159-162
    2 - The Zeal of Muhammad....................................................................... 163-166
    3 – Thus, God glorified Him...................................................................... 167-168
    4 – Therefore, Profess the Unity of God .................................................. 169-171
    Conclusion: Unity in tri-unity ................................................................... 172-174


    The Sixth Section: The Death of Christ on the Cross
    1 - Why Do You Worship the Cross? ....................................................... 175-182
    2 - Did Christ Die on the Cross? ............................................................... 183-201
    a) It is not possible that God can die? ......................................................... 183-185
    b) They did not kill him, nor crucify him, but it seemed as though to them . 186-188
    c) Christ did not die yet, but he will die ....................................................... 189-190
    d) The prophets did not prophesy about the death of Christ ....................... 191-198
    e) Therefore they prophesied, so these were the parables ........................... 199-202
    3 - How Could Christ Die If He is the Omnipotent God? ...................... 203-216
    Introduction.................................................................................................. 203-204
    a) The death of Messiah took place according to his own will .................... 205-206
    38
    b) But that does not mean that the Jews are not guilty ................................ 207-209
    c) The death of Messiah took place according to his own volition and because the
    hatred of the Jews ........................................................................................ 210-214
    Conclusion ................................................................................................... 215-216


    The Seventh Section: Why Do You Not Believe That Muhammad is a Prophet?
    Introduction ........................................................................................................217
    1 - God Announced That the Gospel Abrogated the Old Testament .... 218-227
    Introduction..........................................................................................................218
    a) He announced this by the mouth the Prophet Jeremiah .......................... 219-220
    b) He announced this by the mouth the Prophet Joel .................................. 221-227
    Conclusion ................................................................................................... 226-227
    2 – God Did Not Announce Muhammad ................................................. 228-237
    Introduction..........................................................................................................228
    a) Explanation: “From amongst your brothers” ......................................... 229-234
    b) Explanation: “A prophet like me” ........................................................... 235-237
    3 - Muhammad is Not a Prophet .............................................................. 238-247
    Introduction.................................................................................................. 238-241
    a) The Prophecy of Malachi ................................................................................242
    b) Prophecy of John son of Zachariah ......................................................... 243-245
    Conclusion ................................................................................................... 246-247


    The Eighth Section: The Absence of Falsification in the Torah, the (Books) of the Prophets, and the Gospel
    Introduction ................................................................................................ 248-250
    1 - The Absence of Falsification ................................................................ 251-262
    a) The Torah and the (Books) of the Prophets testify to all the teachings of
    Messiah ........................................................................................................ 251-256
    b) How did the Christians and Jews mutually agree? ................................. 257-261
    Conclusion ..........................................................................................................262
    2 - The Absence of Falsification in the Gospel ........................................ 263-272
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    Introduction.................................................................................................. 263-264
    a) If we had falsified the Gospel, we would have suppressed the contemptible
    things ............................................................................................................ 265-267
    b) If the name of Muhammad was found in our books, we would have awaited him
    more than we awaited the Jewish Messiah .................................................. 268-271


    Conclusion ...........................................................................................................272
    Conclusion
    Conclusion .................................................................................................. 273-275


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  • Paul d'Antioche
    (Bulus ar-Rahib)
    La Lettre à un ami musulman
    Table des matières

    - Préambule
    - Un chrétien doit-il devenir musulman ?
    - Dieu en tant que Trinité
    - Le Verbe de Dieu incarné
    - Le coran doit-il être une référence obligatoire pour les chrétiens ?
    - Passer d'une compréhension charnelle à un langage spirituel
    - Vocabulaire philosophique : "substance" et "accident"
    - Après la Justice, la Grâce, et c'est tout
    - Conclusion


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